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Florida Water StarSM Technical Manual

Glossary of terms

  • aerator — See faucet aerator.
  • access — That which enables a fixture, appliance, or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door, or similar obstruction. See ready access (Florida Building Code [FBC]).
  • accessible — Capable of being reached, used, or seen, especially a device that is available without dismantling the permanent features of a building.
  • Accredited Professional (AP) — A landscape or irrigation professional who has successfully passed the Florida Water StarSM AP exam and is in good standing with the program.
  • acidic (soil) — A measure that is derived by the partial exchange of replacement hydrogen. In soil, a pH value below 7 is considered acidic.
  • administrator — Usually a person with authority for oversight and implementation of program criteria, to include evaluation and inspection approval, and records management. The Florida Water StarSM administrator has authority to issue Florida Water StarSM certification. The administrator for Florida Water StarSM is the St. Johns River Water Management District. (See Florida Water StarSM certification program process web page for a full list of details.)
  • agency — The office having official capacity for oversight of the program, including the development of program criteria, evaluation and inspection approval, and records management. The St. Johns River Water Management District is the agency for Florida Water StarSM. (See Florida Water StarSM certification program process web page for a full list of details.)
  • alkaline (soil) — Soil with a neutrality level, or pH value, above 7.
  • appliance — Household device or machine such as clothes washer or refrigerator that is generally operated by gas or electric current in most residences.
  • applicant — Person or group that applies for Florida Water StarSM certification.
  • application rate — See precipitation rate.
  • arc — The angle coverage by a sprinkler, in degrees, from one side of throw to the other. A 90-degree arc would be a quarter-circle sprinkler (Appendix F, FBC).
  • area — Square footage or acreage measured or estimated from scale plans, photographs, or from on-site measurements (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • automatic control valve — A valve that is activated by an irrigation system’s automatic controller by way of hydraulic or electrical service. Or the valve in a sprinkler system that is activated by an automatic controller and which controls a single device or multiple devices of the irrigation system (Appendix F, FBC).
  • automatic controller — A mechanical or electrical device capable of automated operation of valve stations to set the time, duration, and frequency of a water application (Florida Department of Environmental Protection [DEP] Model Ordinance).
  • back-flow preventer — An approved safety device used to prevent pollution or contamination of the irrigation water supply due to backflow from the irrigation system (Appendix F, FBC).
  • branch — Any part of the piping system except a riser, main, or stack (FBC).
  • building — A structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, as defined by Florida Building Code.
  • builder — The person, business, or entity that enters into a Builder Participation Agreement and accepts the responsibility for meeting all Florida Water StarSM requirements for certification. In the case of new homes, when the builder is a licensed building contractor, the contractor may transfer Florida Water StarSM certification to the subsequent purchaser of the home. (See Florida Water StarSM certification document for a full list of details.)
  • bubbler — Water emission device that tends to bubble water directly to the ground or that throws water a short distance, about one foot, (300 millimeters) before water contacts the ground surface (IA Irrigation Glossary).
  • bubbler irrigation — The application of water to the soil surface or a container as a small stream or fountain. Bubbler emitter discharge rates are greater than the 0.5 to 2 gph, which is characteristic of drip emitters, but generally less than 60 gph (Appendix F, FBC).
  • buffer — See vegetated buffer.
  • certificate of occupancy — A document issued by a local government’s building official, certifying compliance with applicable building codes and other laws and indicating that a building or residence is in a condition suitable for occupancy.
  • certifier — Person that verifies Florida Water StarSM program criteria in accordance with program documents. Certifiers demonstrate sufficient knowledge to verify appropriate subcategories (irrigation, landscape, and plumbing). Certifiers are permitted to use construction documents, affidavits, and field verification during the verification period. (See Florida Water StarSM certification program process web page for a full list of details.)
  • check valve — A valve that permits water to flow in one direction only (Appendix F, FBC).
  • cistern — A covered tank or receptacle for storing water for a home or farm, usually as an aboveground ground collection basin for rainwater. For purposes other than potable water supply, the tank is usually placed underground (FBC).
  • class (pipe) — This term is generally used to describe the pressure rating of SDR-PR (standard dimension ratio-pressure rated) PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe. For example, a Class 200 pipe has a pressure rating of 200 pounds per square inch (psi), colloquial; also, the physical characteristics of thermoplastic pipe, defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials, D1784-11 (Standard Specification for Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds), 2008.
  • clay — A naturally occurring aluminum silicate composed primarily of fine-grained minerals. It is relatively impermeable to water.
  • climate — Combination of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count, and other meteorological measurements in a given region over long periods of time.
  • compatible — In landscaping, the groups of plants that thrive under the same soil, light, and space requirements.
  • compost — A mixture of decaying organic matter, as from leaves and manure, used as an amendment to improve soil structure and provide nutrients. The composting process is largely the result of the activity of aerobic organisms. Compost reduces the need to fertilize because nutrients are supplied in a slow-release manner. Composting also holds more rainwater on-site, decreases runoff, and provides increased soil moisture, and filtering capacity.
  • conservation easement — A legal agreement between a landowner and a government agency (or a qualified nonprofit group involved in conservation activities) to protect open spaces, water recharge areas, environmentally sensitive lands, wildlife habitats, or historic features. For the purposes of Florida Water StarSM, a recorded conservation easement is not counted as preservation to earn points.
  • consumptive use — The use of water for any of the following purposes: aesthetics, agriculture, aquaculture, commercial and industrial processes, cooling and air conditioning, dewatering, freeze protection, golf course, household, irrigation, livestock, nursery, power production, recreation, or wetland enhancement/creation.
  • contractor — Any person who engages or contracts to perform work such as constructing a building or house.
  • controller — The timing mechanism and its mounting box. The controller signals the automatic valves to open and close on a preset program, or based on sensor readings (Appendix F, FBC).
  • cool season — November through March, usually for zones 5b to 10 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Hardiness Zone Map.
  • cooling tower — A mechanical device that cools a circulating stream of water by evaporating a portion of it. A cooling tower is part of a system that provides air conditioning or equipment cooling. It usually includes a heat exchanger, recirculation water system, fans, drains, and makeup water supply (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • cooperative partner — Entity that enters into an agreement with the program agency to issue Florida Water StarSM certifications in a specific region. The Southwest Florida and South Florida water management districts are currently cooperative partners.
  • coverage — The extent to which water is applied to an area (Appendix F, FBC).
  • cycle — Refers to one complete run of a controller through all programmed controller stations (Appendix F, FBC).
  • distribution uniformity (DU) — Measure of the uniformity of irrigation water over an area (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers [ASA(B)E] 1998).
  • dormant, dormancy — The resting or inactive phase of plants or seeds during stress or winter.
  • drought-tolerant — Plants that survive without rainfall or irrigation for short periods. Most plants are drought-tolerant after establishment when planted in the right conditions; i.e., succulents survive droughts in xeric soils, while wetland plants survive droughts in hydric soils. Although plants can be drought-tolerant, their health and aesthetics during drought may decline due to stress, high maintenance, and dormancy; for example, a plant may lose its leaves, stop blooming, and stems may desiccate, but the roots of the plant survive.
  • drip irrigation — The precise low-rate application of water to or beneath the soil surface near or directly into the plant root zone. Applications normally occur as small streams, discrete, or continuous drops, in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 gph (Appendix F, FBC).
  • E-certification — Electronic means by which inspection reports are submitted by the certifier. The database is hosted and managed by the St. Johns River Water Management District.
  • efficiency practice — Any practice that increases water use efficiency above typical amounts of water use.
  • emitters — Devices used to control the discharge of irrigation from lateral pipes. This term is primarily used to refer to the low-flow rate devices used in microirrigation systems (Appendix F, FBC).
  • end use — A fixture, appliance, or other specific object or activity that uses water (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • ENERGY STAR® — A joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, with the purpose of reducing energy costs and protecting the environment, through energy- and water-efficient products and practices.
  • established — A plant that has recovered from the initial stress of installation and is thriving in a manner consistent with its species’ habits.
  • establishment irrigation — Irrigation necessary to establish a plant after its initial installation.
  • evapotranspiration (ET) — The combined losses of water by evaporation from the soil and other surfaces and transpiration from plants, normally expressed in inches or millimeters per day.
  • evapotranspiration-based (ET) controller — A controller that calculates soil moisture from known weather and related inputs. An ET-based controller performs the following:
    1. Receives and monitors weather data or on-site environmental conditions including, but not limited to, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and soil moisture
    2. Calculates or determines the amount of moisture input to and moisture lost from the soil and plants
    3. Automatically creates or adjusts the irrigation schedule to apply only the amount of water that is necessary to maintain adequate soil moisture
  • exotic — Nonnative, outside the region of North America.
  • faucet — The valve end of a water pipe through which water is withdrawn or held within (FBC).
  • faucet aerator — A flow reduction device that screws on the end of the kitchen or lavatory faucet to add air to the water flow (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • filter — A device in irrigation distribution systems that separates sediment or other foreign matter (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • filtration — The process by which sediment or other foreign matter is separated from fluids, in this case, water.
  • fixed-spray nozzle — Spray nozzle with a fixed arc angle that is typically in 45-degree or 90-degree increments.
  • fixture — A device that is fixed or attached (as to a building) as a permanent appendage or as a structural part, i.e., faucets, showerheads, or toilets.
  • fixture and appliance schedule — A list or table of all fixtures and appliances, with their water-use rates. Rates can be expressed in gallons per minute, gallons per flush, gallons per cycle, or water factor.
  • fixture supply — The water supply pipe connecting a fixture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water supply pipe (FBC).
  • Florida-Friendly™ — Describes the practices, materials, or actions that help preserve Florida’s natural resources and protect the environment (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • flow bag — A plastic bag used in the testing of an indoor fixture’s flow rate.
  • flow rate — The rate at which a volume of water flows through pipes or valves within a given time period as measured by cubic feet per second (cfs) or gallons per minute. (gpm) (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • flow sensor — Device used to measure the volume of flow of water (typically in gallons), or flow rates (typically in gpm), and to provide data on system usage (Appendix F, FBC).
  • flush valve — A valve used to expel sediment from irrigation lines. Also, a type of flushing mechanism used in commercial toilets (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • flushometer valve — A valve attached to a pressurized water supply pipe, designed so that when activated, it opens the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to operate the fixture properly, then gradually closes to reseal the fixture traps and avoid water hammer (FBC).
  • flushometer — A commercial/institutional type toilet that generates a flush by the opening of a valve directly connected to the pressurized building water system (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • full shade — Areas receiving less than five hours of sunlight a day, e.g., northwest areas, deep shade under canopy trees, areas between homes on zero-lot lines, bedding areas under roof eaves.
  • full sun — Areas receiving more than six to eight hours of sunlight a day, e.g., southeast areas, treeless lots, new subdivisions with new landscapes, large open expanses of turf.
  • gray water — Untreated, used water from a household or small commercial establishment (excluding that from toilets or other fixtures and appliances, of which wastewater may have had contact with human waste); could be used for nonpotable purposes, such as irrigation and industrial uses.
  • ground cover — A plant with a low-growing, spreading habit that is grown specifically to cover a wide area for ornamental purposes or to prevent soil erosion in areas where turf is difficult to grow, as in deep shade or on a steep slope.
  • growth rate — The rate at which a plant grows under normal conditions, i.e., fast, moderate, slow. See chart.
  • Annual Growth Rate Chart (depending on species)

    Plant type

    Slow

    Medium

    Fast

    Trees

    Less than 2 feet

    2–3 feet

    More than 3 feet

    Shrubs

    Less than 2 feet

    2–3 feet

    More than 3 feet

    Perennials

    Less than 1 foot

    1 foot

    More than 1 foot

    Fruit trees

    Less than 2 feet

    2–3 feet

    More than 3 feet

    Fern

    Less than 3 inches

    2–3 feet

    More than 3 feet

    Ground covers

    Less than 1 foot

    1–2 feet

    More than 2 feet

    Vines

    Less than 2 feet

    2–3 feet

    More than 3 feet

  • hardiness zone — A geographic area in which a plant is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone. The U.S. Department of Agriculture determines hardiness zones.
  • hardscape — Areas such as patios, decks, driveways, paths and sidewalks that do not require irrigation (DEP).
  • head — A sprinkler head that provides aboveground or overhead irrigation; also known as rotor, spray head, mist head, and impact sprinkler. Sometimes used interchangeably with and in conjunction with sprinkler (Adapted from Appendix F, FBC, plumbing volume).
  • head-to-head spacing — Spacing of sprinkler heads so that each sprinkler throws water to the adjacent sprinkler (Irrigation Association [IA] Glossary).
  • high-efficiency toilets (HET) — Toilets deigned to have a maximum of 1.28 gallons per flush or less. These are as tested in accordance with Uniform North American Requirements (UNAR).
  • high-volume irrigation — An irrigation system with a minimum flow rate per emitter of more than 30 gph or higher than 0.5 gpm. High volume is usually measured as gpm.
  • hot water — Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110°F, or 43°C (FBC).
  • hot water on demand system — A system capable of pumping hot water more quickly from the water heater to the fixture calling for water, for the purpose of reducing the wait time (and associated waste) of hot water (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • hydric — Soils characterized by abundant moisture, e.g., lakefronts, shorelines, low-lying areas, compacted soils or clay soils that do not percolate.
  • hydrozone — A distinct grouping of plants with similar watering needs and climatic requirements (FBC).
  • infiltration rate — The rate of water flow across the surface of the soil and into the soil profile. Usually measured as inches per hour (Appendix F, FBC).
  • impervious — Resistant to penetration by fluids, such as rain or irrigation water.
  • in-ground irrigation — An irrigation system consisting of valves, pipes, and sprinklers/emitters installed within the ground that will provide irrigation beyond plant establishment (i.e., for maintenance).
  • in-line drip — Flexible tubing that has evenly spaced emitters with identical discharge rates.
  • in-line pressure regulator — A pressure regulator installed after the backflow preventer and before all zone valves that restricts all water flowing through to the system to a maximum pressure (e.g., 40 psi).
  • invasive — Plants that alter native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives.
  • irrigated area — All outdoor areas that require a permanent irrigation system (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • irrigation — Application of water to a landscape by artificial means, that is, means other than natural precipitation. Irrigation is practiced to supply crop water requirements, leach salts, apply chemicals, and for environmental control, including crop cooling and freeze protection (Appendix F, FBC).
  • irrigation cycle — A scheduled application of water by an irrigation station defined by a start time and its duration. Multiple cycles can be scheduled, separated by time intervals, to allow infiltration of applied water (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • irrigation schedule — List or table containing information for each irrigation zone, which might include zone flow rate, average application rate, and more important, run time. Multiple irrigation schedules might be necessary to reflect climatic changes over the course of a year.
  • irrigation system — A set of components that may include the water source, water distribution network, control components, and other general irrigation equipment which has been installed to provide irrigation.
  • irrigation zone — A grouping of sprinkler heads or microirrigation emitters operated simultaneously by the control of one valve. Zones are composed of similar sprinkler types and plant material types with similar water requirements. A section of an irrigation system served by a single control valve (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • landscape — Any combination of living plants, such as grass, ground cover, shrubs, vines, hedges, or trees, and nonliving landscape material, such as rocks, pebbles, sand, mulch, walls, fences, or decorative paving materials (DEP Model Ordinance). The term may also refer to any area that is ornamentally planted, including but not limited to turf, ground covers, flowers, shrubs, trees, and similar plant materials, as opposed to agricultural crops grown and harvested for monetary return (Appendix F, FBC).
  • landscaped area — The entire area of the parcel less the building footprint, driveways, hardscapes, decks and patios, and nonporous areas (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • landscape bed — See plant bed.
  • landscape layout plan — Plans and drawings that show the location of buildings, structures, pedestrian, transportation or environmental systems, and the detail for placement of site amenities, accessibility components, plantings and other tangible objects (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • lateral — The water delivery pipeline that supplies water to the emitters or sprinklers from a manifold or header pipeline downstream of the control valve (Appendix F, FBC).
  • line-source emitters — Lateral pipelines that are porous or contain closely spaced perforations so water is discharged as a continuous band or in overlapping patterns rather than as discrete, widely spaced points along the pipeline length (Appendix F, FBC).
  • local — Pertaining to a single, specific jurisdiction (e.g., town, municipality, county).
  • low head drainage — Drainage of water from irrigation lines at the lowest elevations in an irrigation station (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • low flow point applicators — Irrigation emitter used in microirrigation systems acting as the sprinkler head in the drip method of water application (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • low-lying head — Any irrigation head that is significantly lower than the zone valve that supplies it. Low-lying heads are typically found on the perimeters of properties.
  • low-volume irrigation — Any emitter or sprinkler that applies less that 30 gallons per hour (gph) or 0.5 gallons per minute (gpm).
  • maintenance irrigation schedule — Irrigation schedule used to meet plant water requirement beyond establishment.
  • makeup water — Freshwater introduced into a cooling tower to replace water lost to evaporation and blow-down (Alliance for Water Efficiency).
  • manifold plumbing system — A manifold plumbing system is a control center that feeds flexible hot and cold water supply lines to individual fixtures. Manifold plumbing systems are similar in concept to a home’s electrical circuit breaker system. Separate manifolds serve hot and cold waterlines. The cold-water manifold is fed from the main water supply line, and the hot water manifold is fed from the hot water heater. Water pressure in the manifolds is maintained by the incoming service line, and a dedicated water supply line feeds each fixture from a port in the manifold. Because each fixture has its own supply line, the size of the pipe can be adjusted for a fixture's specific use.
  • matched precipitation — Expressed in inches per hour, precipitation rate is the rate at which sprinklers apply water. Matched precipitation usually implies that all of the sprinklers in a particular zone apply similar amounts of water to a given area.
  • mature — A plant that has grown to its full height and width.
  • mesic — Soils characterized as having moderate amounts of moisture and organic materials that drain well. Frequent evidence of earthworms can be an easy indication of mesic soils.
  • microclimate — Variations of the climate within a given area, usually influenced by hills, hollows, structures, or proximity to bodies of water. A microclimate differs significantly from the general climate of a region.
  • microirrigation — The application of small quantities of water directly on or below the soil surface or plant root zone, usually as discrete drops, tiny streams, or miniature sprays through emitters placed along the water delivery pipes (laterals). Microirrigation encompasses a number of methods or concepts, including drip, subsurface, microbubbler and micro-spray irrigation, previously known as trickle irrigation, low volume or, low-flow irrigation. (Appendix F, FBC).
  • microspray — A microirrigation emitter that distributes water in a fine sheet over a small area. Similar to high-volume spray heads, microsprays should be installed head-to-head.
  • moist — Soil that is not sandy and not excessively wet. It is composed of organic material such as humus and is well drained. See mesic.
  • moisture sensing device — A device to indicate soil moisture in the root zone, for the purpose of controlling an irrigation system based on the actual needs of the plant (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • mulch — A 3-inch to 4-inch layer of organic or synthetic material that is placed 2 inches away from the base of the plant and which helps plants to retain water by reducing evaporation, weeds; also keeps soil temperatures cooler in summer, warmer in winter.
  • native — A plant that occurs naturally in a particular region, state, ecosystem, or habitat.
  • native vegetation — Any plant species with a geographic distribution indigenous to all or part of Florida, as identified in Wunderlin’s (1998) “Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida” (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • nonnative — An exotic plant; not native to the area.
  • nonpoint source pollution — Pollution originating from diffuse areas (land surface or atmosphere) having no well-defined source (Natural Resources Conservation Service [NRCS] 1997).
  • nonpotable water — Water not safe for drinking, personal, or culinary use (FBC).
  • nozzle — The discharge orifice of the sprinkler head or the final orifice through which water passes from the sprinkler or emitter to the atmosphere (Rain Bird 1997).
  • occupancy — The purpose for which a building or portion thereof is utilized or occupied (FBC).
  • organic matter — Carbonaceous waste contained in plant or animal matter and originating from domestic or industrial sources.
  • ornamental — Any plant grown for the aesthetic beauty of its bark, flowers, foliage, seasonal color or shape.
  • overspray — A significant amount of water applied by an irrigation sprinkler/emitter onto an impervious area or into a separate irrigation zone.
  • partial sun — Five to six hours of sunlight, either in the morning with afternoon shade or in the afternoon with morning shade.
  • permanent irrigation system — A set of components which may include the water source, water distribution network, control components and other general irrigation equipment that is installed to provide irrigation beyond the establishment period.
  • pervious — Land surfaces that do not restrict the penetration of water.
  • pH — The measure of the soil’s acidity or alkalinity.
  • pitot tube — Small L-shaped tube that can be attached to a pressure gauge or other measuring device to measure the velocity head of water discharging from a nozzle or flowing in a pipe (IA Glossary).
  • plant bed — A grouping of trees, shrubs, ground covers, perennials, or annuals growing together in a defined area devoid of turf grass, normally using mulch around the plants (DEP Model Ordinance). For the purposes of Florida Water StarSM, plant beds must be designed so that, at maturity, they have a 60 percent cover.
  • plumbing — The infrastructure (such as pipes and fixtures) necessary for the distribution and use of water in a building.
  • point of connection — The location where an irrigation system is connected to a water supply (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • pop-up sprays — Spray heads that pop up with water pressure and provide a continuous spray pattern throughout a given arc of operation with a usual application rate exceeding 30 gph (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • potable water — Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards or the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction (FBC).
  • precipitation rate — The average rate at which water is applied by an irrigation system, sometimes also called application rate. Units are typically inches per hour or millimeters per hour (Appendix F, FBC).
  • preserved area — An area maintained in its natural state.
  • pressure-regulating valve — Valve equipped with pressure-regulating devices that regulate the downstream pressure to reduce higher pressures and reduce pressure fluctuations.
  • pressure regulator — Device that maintains constant downstream operating pressure (immediately downstream of the device) which is lower than the upstream pressure (Rain Bird 1997).
  • pressure compensating emitter — Emittance device that delivers a constant gph over a wide of range of pressure (10–50 psi).
  • pressure regulating-head — Sprinkler head that is designed to keep water pressure within optimal operating range.
  • pressure vacuum breaker — A backflow prevention device that includes a spring-loaded check valve and a spring-loaded vacuum breaker to prevent the backflow of irrigation system water to the water source (Appendix F, FBC).
  • pressure variation — Difference in pressure between any two sprinklers/emitters.
  • private — In the classification of plumbing fixtures, private applies to fixtures in residences and apartments and to fixtures in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are intended for use by a family or individual (FBC).
  • radius adjustment screw — A screw that is typically installed on a gear-driven rotor that allows for decrease of the radius of throw.
  • radius of throw — Distance from the sprinkler head to the furthest point of water application and is used only for heads with circular wetting patterns (IA Irrigation Glossary).
  • rainfall shutoff device — A device designed to bypass automatic irrigation operation after a predetermined amount of rainfall. Can include a rain sensor or a soil moisture sensor or an evapotranspiration controller and is required by Chapter 373.62, Florida Statutes.
  • rain sensor — A low voltage electrical or mechanical component placed in the circuitry of an automatic landscape irrigation system that is designed to restrict operation of a sprinkler controller when precipitation has reached a pre-set quantity.
  • ready access — That which enables a fixture, appliance, or equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal or movement of any panel, door, or similar obstruction and without the use of a portable ladder, step stool, or similar device (FBC).
  • reclaimed water — Water captured for use when it normally would have been discarded or lost. Reclaimed water is nonpotable.
  • reuse — The act of using water that has already been used at least once and is directly captured after the first use.
  • root zone — Depth of soil that plant’s roots readily penetrate and in which the predominant root activity occurs (ASA(B)E 1998).
  • rotor — Sprinkler that rotates and specifically, a gear-driven sprinkler. Often delivers a thin stream of water in a circular pattern over a longer distance with a precipitation rate from 0.1 inches per hour to 1.5 inches per hour.
  • runoff — The water that results from and occurs following a rain event, or following an irrigation event, because the water is not absorbed by the soil or landscape and flows from the area (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • salt-tolerant — A plant that tolerates a large amount of salt in the soil or in the wind (salt spray). Some plants may be tolerant of salt spray but not salt water, especially in coastal communities using reclaimed water.
  • schedule — See indoor plumbing schedule, or irrigation schedule.
  • shrub — Woody plants, sometimes with multiple shoots or stems from a base that attains a height of 15 feet or less at maturity. Waterwise shrubs are divided into categories titled shrubs under 10 feet and shrubs over 10 feet at maturity.
  • single-row spacing — Sprinkler spacing that relies on one row of sprinklers without a second row providing head-to-head coverage. Such spacing can be acceptable in narrow side yards.
  • site appropriate plant — A plant that after establishment will thrive within the environmental conditions normal for a specific location, without artificial supplements such as irrigation (DEP).
  • slope — The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall, in units vertical, per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe (FBC).
  • soil — Unconsolidated minerals and material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of plants (ASA(B)E 1998).
  • soil amendment — Any element added to the soil such as compost, peat moss, or fertilizer that improves the capacity of soil to support plant life.
  • soil moisture — The water held in the spaces between soil particles. Dry soil: See xeric. Moist soil: See mesic. Wet soil: See hydric.
  • soil pH — A measure of soil acidity or alkalinity ranging in value from one to 14, on which the value of seven represents neutrality. Incorrect soil pH can affect absorption of nutrients and create stressful conditions that can contribute to pest problems.
  • soil moisture sensor — A soil-based device that assesses the available plant soil moisture to minimize the unnecessary use of water and optimize the effectiveness of an irrigation system (DEP Model Ordinance).
  • soil texture — The classification of soil, based on the percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil (DEP).
  • solenoid — This term refers to the electromagnet that is connected to a controller, which facilitates the opening and closing of automatic control valves or valve-in-head sprinklers (Rain Bird 1997).
  • spray head, fixed — Sprinkler head with a fixed orifice that does not rotate.
  • spray head gauge — Pressure gauge used for measuring pressure from a spray head.
  • spray zone — Irrigation zones equipped with spray heads as opposed to being equipped with rotors or microirrigation.
  • sprinkler — The sprinkler head, also known as head (Appendix F, FBC).
  • subsurface drip irrigation — Application of water below the soil surface through emitters, with discharge rates generally the same range as drip irrigation. The method of water application is different from and not to be confused with sub-irrigation where the root zone is irrigated by water table control. (ASA(B)E 1998)
  • temporary irrigation system — An irrigation system that is typically aboveground and which is removed following plant establishment irrigation.
  • Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) — Provides oversight and clarification of the Florida Water StarSM technical program and certification program documents. Scope includes, but is not limited to, reviewing technical and certification questions from program participants and providing guidance, either verbally or in writing, in the form of a Technical Interpretation.
  • turf grass — Sod; varieties of grasses that are used for residential lawns and swales to stop erosion. Some Florida varieties of turf grass are: St. Augustine grass, Bahia grass, Zoysia grass, Bermuda grass, and centipede grass.
  • unirrigated area — Landscape area that is not irrigated beyond establishment.
  • UNAR (Uniform North American Requirements) — A voluntary system for qualifying toilet fixtures that can be adopted by water authorities, for sustainable water savings from toilet fixture replacements and a high level of customer satisfaction with flushing performance.
  • UNAR MaP — Maximum performance toilet fixture testing protocol of the Uniform North American Requirements.
  • valve — A device used to control the flow of water in the irrigation system (DEP).
  • variable arc nozzle (VAN) — A spray nozzle that can be adjusted across a range of arc angles to match unevenly shaped landscape areas.
  • vegetated buffer — A voluntary, 10-foot, low-maintenance zone is recommended but not mandated from any pond, stream, water course, lake, or wetland, or from the top of a sea wall. A swale/berm system is recommended for installation at the landward edge of this low-maintenance zone, to capture and filter runoff.
  • water budget — Total amount of annual irrigation water used for an entire commercial or community property, usually expressed in inches or gallons per square foot. The water budget calculator is a tool designed to calculate the annual water application of a project.
  • water factor — The number of gallons per cycle per cubic foot used by a clothes washer or dishwasher. The lower the water factor, the more efficient the washer. (For example, if a clothes washer uses 30 gallons per cycle and has a tub volume of 3.0 cubic feet, then the water factor is 10.)
  • water hammer — Phenomenon which occurs when the velocity of water flowing in pipelines is rapidly changed, usually by rapid or sudden gate or valve closure, starting or stopping of a pump, or sudden release of air. The resulting pressure waves pass through the water at high velocities and can produce very high momentary positive and/or negative pressures (American National Standards Institute /ASAE S261.7, October 1996).
  • water heater — Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies; such water to the potable hot water distribution system (FBC).
  • water requirement — The amount of water necessary to maintain plant health.
  • WaterSense® — A program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to promote the use of water-efficient products and services.
  • waterwise — A common-sense way to landscape that conserves water and protects the environment. The main objective is to establish and maintain a healthy landscape by matching the right plants with existing site conditions so that the use of additional resources, such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor, is minimized. In addition, waterwise landscaping practices reduce the amount of pollutants reaching water bodies because fewer yard chemicals are used. Fertilizers and pesticides can contaminate waterways when they are washed out of the yard with the rain in stormwater runoff.
  • well drained — Soil condition with moderate water-holding capacity. Retains optimum amounts of moisture, but is not wet close enough to the surface or long enough during the growing season to adversely affect plants.
  • wet — Soils that are saturated most of the time; e.g., lakefront, shorelines, low-lying areas, and clays that do not percolate. See hydric.
  • xeric — Sandy, nutrient-poor, soils that do not hold moisture. Xeric soils are not considered bad soils.
  • zones — Zones are composed of similar sprinkler types and of plant materials with similar water requirements; also, a section of an irrigation system served by a single control valve.

St. Johns River Water Management District
4049 Reid Street, Palatka, FL 32177
800-725-5922